The production line is generally arranged horizontally in the plant. This kind of workshop has simple structure, can adopt large span and deep depth; it is easy to use heavy lifting and transportation equipment, and can install heavy equipment on the ground; it can use skylight for lighting and ventilation. The single-layer workshop has strong adaptability, which can be used to produce heavy products and light products; it can be built into large-span, large area, small span and small area. However, due to the large land occupation, the length of outdoor roads, pipelines and transportation lines has been increased accordingly.
Most of the workshops are rectangular, and some of the hot working workshop workshops usually adopt the shape of п. The living room and auxiliary room are mostly arranged along the edge of the column or at the dead corner of the crane. They can also be built in the vicinity of the plant or around the plant. However, they should not be too much, so as not to hinder the lighting and ventilation of the plant.. The height of each span of multi span plant is different, so it should be adjusted appropriately to simplify the treatment of components and structures, and improve the lighting and ventilation effect.
When there is no need for heavy crane or large suspension transportation equipment, large space structures such as thin shell, grid, suspension cable (see suspension structure building) can also be used to expand the column network and increase flexibility.
Multi story factory building is developed on the basis of single story factory building. This kind of workshop is conducive to the arrangement of vertical production process, centralized pipelines, convenient management and small floor area. If heavy and vibration workshop is arranged, the structure design is more complex.
The plane of multi-storey workshop has many forms, the most common one is: the inner gallery is arranged with unequal span, and the middle span is used as the passage; the equal span layout is suitable for the production workshop with large area and flexible layout. The width of multi-storey factory buildings with natural lighting as the main part is generally 15-24m. If they are too wide, the lighting in the middle zone is insufficient. Transportation hub and pipeline well are usually arranged in the center, while air conditioning room can be set on one side or bottom floor of the plant, and technical interlayer and shaft are used to connect to each floor.
At the bottom of the multi-storey factory building, more workshops or raw materials and finished products warehouses with frequent external transportation, large equipment and more water are arranged. The top floor of the multi-storey workshop is convenient for increasing the span and opening the skylight, and large-area processing and assembly workshop or precision processing workshop should be arranged. Other layers shall be arranged according to the production line.
Sometimes, in order to simplify the structure, the transportation hub can also be located in the connection body adjacent to the plant. In the production workshop with bucket elevator, slideway, infusion channel, pneumatic pipeline and other gravity transportation equipment, such as flour mill, the working section shall be arranged in strict accordance with the process flow. The auxiliary living room is usually arranged at the end of each floor to approach the section served. The auxiliary living room can also be pasted outside the main workshop and connected by stairs.
The multi-storey factory buildings mostly adopt reinforced concrete frame structure system, or prefabricated, or cast-in-place, or a combination of the two; also widely use the beamless floor system, such as lifting slab and other types. The adaptability of process change shall be considered for floor load, and lifting holes shall be reserved for equipment installation and overhaul.
This kind of workshop emits a lot of waste heat or smoke during the production process. The design of the workshop should focus on solving the problem of heat dissipation and smoke exhaust, which is generally based on natural ventilation and supplemented by mechanical heat exhaust. In the design, the pollution and impact on the environment inside and outside the workshop should be considered comprehensively.
Most of the hot processing plants are narrow and long single span plants to facilitate natural ventilation, and the large area can also be connected. The layout of the heat source in the plant should consider the impact on the adjacent sections. If the annual wind pressure is not large, the heat source should be facing the air outlet (such as skylight) to reduce the indoor turbulence.
The skylight should be high enough to facilitate exhaust. In warm areas, open or semi open buildings can be used. In order to prevent the invasion of wind and rain, a rain shield can be set and used as a sunshade.
If the hot processing workshop is used for smelting, steel rolling, casting, forging and other workshops, there are generally trenches, pits and large equipment foundations, and there are many underground flues, which should be set in the section with low underground water level, and waterproof treatment should be carried out. In addition, the vibration and noise produced in the foundry and forging workshop should also be dealt with.
Cold working is relative to hot working. Cold working workshop is a workshop that does not emit a lot of waste heat in the production process. According to the characteristics of production and construction, it can be divided into two categories: heavy and light: ① heavy cold processing workshop. The volume and weight of its workpieces are relatively large. The plant design should focus on solving the problems of railway transportation, the relationship between heavy crane and plant, and the combination of light and heavy parts processing sections. In the plane of this kind of workshop, the spans of machining and assembly sections are usually arranged vertically to each other. The heavy parts processing Bay is close to the open warehouse, and the rest bays are arranged according to the weight of the parts. The combination of all parallel spans can also be adopted, with one end of the plant leading into the railway special branch line and the other end arranging the living room. The large volume of heavy-duty cold processing workshop requires reasonable selection of structural form and proper handling of workshop body shape and facade dimension. Generally, auxiliary rooms, offices, living rooms and other buildings can be combined to save land. ② Light cold working workshop. In this kind of workshop, the workpieces are light, but there are large quantities and many varieties; the requirements for production continuity are high, and the process renewal cycle is short, so there should be more flexibility in the transportation route and equipment layout. In order to increase flexibility, it is advisable to use the standard design of large column net flexible workshop to facilitate the arrangement of assembly lines in different directions. The possibility of changing the route of the suspended means of transport should be considered structurally. Light movable partition wall can be used in the workshop to meet the needs of production process change. In addition, due to the high processing accuracy, high personnel density, natural lighting and ventilation requirements of specific gravity processing plant.
Large and medium-sized factories are generally equipped with various power stations. The power station buildings can be divided into two categories: one is the station buildings for power supply, heat supply and gas supply, such as self provided power station, boiler room, gas station, etc.; the other is the station buildings for hydrogen, oxygen, acetylene and compressed air.
① boiler room and gas station. In plants with coal as the main energy source, they are often arranged close to each other so that water treatment system, coal handling system and ash removal system can be used together. They are located near the transportation trunk line in the plant area. The main buildings of large boiler house and gas station are mostly three floors, so as to realize the mechanization of coal transportation, coal storage and ash removal. The boiler room is divided into coal adding layer, operation layer and ash discharging layer; the gas station is divided into coal conveying corridor, coal hopper and operation room, generator and slag removal room. In addition, the boiler room is also equipped with chimneys and dust removal facilities; the outdoor gas station is equipped with electrostatic tar removal, circulating water and other equipment as well as washing tower and cooling tower. High pressure boiler room and gas station shall also be equipped with lightning protection and explosion-proof facilities.
② hydrogen station, oxygen station, acetylene generation station and compressed air station. In the general layout, these power stations should be close to the workshop with large consumption, so as to facilitate the transportation of bottles and tanks or shorten the pipeline. Hydrogen station, oxygen station and acetylene generating station all have great fire and explosion risks, so oxygen station shall be set in the upper wind position of acetylene generating station and workshop discharging combustible gas to the atmosphere, and acetylene generating station shall be set in the lower wind position of compressed air station. There should be a certain safe distance between such stations. The raw materials they use are mainly the air around the building, so the air in the area should be kept clean.
The oxygen station has two parts of oxygen production and bottle filling, and the one with large output is divided into two workshops. A 2m high protective wall is set up in front of the filling table to prevent the explosion of gas cylinders from hurting people.
Generally, the acetylene generating station is an independent building, and the small production can be combined with the gas workshop, but it must be separated by solid walls to facilitate fire prevention.
Small scale (the output is generally less than 1000 cubic meters per hour) can be pasted on one side of the plant.
When there are many large and medium-sized station equipment, small monorail crane for maintenance can be set.